SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Responses in Various Populations, at the Time of SARS-CoV-2 Variant Virus Emergence: Evaluation of Two Surrogate Neutralization Assays in Front of Whole Virus Neutralization Test.
Auteur : Marot S, Bocar Fofana D, Flandre P, Malet I, Zafilaza K, Leducq V, Vivien D, Mrabet S, Poignon C, Calvez V, Morand-Joubert L, Marcelin AG, Gozlan J
Année : 2022
Journal : Life (Basel) 2075-1729
PubMed Id : 36556429
The SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies response is the best indicator of effective protection after infection and/or vaccination, but its evaluation requires tedious cell-based experiments using an infectious virus. We analyzed, in 105 patients with various histories of SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or vaccination, the neutralizing response using a virus neutralization test (VNT) against B.1, Alpha, Beta and Omicron variants, and compared the results with two surrogate assays based on antibody-mediated blockage of the ACE2-RBD interaction (Lateral Flow Boditech and ELISA Genscript). The strongest response was observed for recovered COVID-19 patients receiving one vaccine dose. Naïve patients receiving 2 doses of mRNA vaccine also demonstrate high neutralization titers against B.1, Alpha and Beta variants, but only 34.3% displayed a neutralization activity against the Omicron variant. On the other hand, non-infected patients with half vaccination schedules displayed a weak and inconstant activity against all isolates. Non-vaccinated COVID-19 patients kept a neutralizing activity against B.1 and Alpha up to 12 months after recovery but a decreased activity against Beta and Omicron. Both surrogate assays displayed a good correlation with the VNT. However, an adaptation of the cut-off positivity was necessary, especially for the most resistant Beta and Omicron variants. We validated two simple and reliable surrogate neutralization assays, which may favorably replace cell-based methods, allowing functional analysis on a larger scale.