rtPA-loaded fucoidan polymer microbubbles for the targeted treatment of stroke.
Auteur : Fournier L, Abioui-Mourgues M, Chabouh G, Aid R, Taille T, Couture O, Vivien D, Orset C, Chauvierre C
Année : 2023
Journal : Biomaterials 1878-5905
PubMed Id : 37952499
Systemic injection of thrombolytic drugs is the gold standard treatment for non-invasive blood clot resolution. The most serious risks associated with the intravenous injection of tissue plasminogen activator-like proteins are the bleeding complication and the dose related neurotoxicity. Indeed, the drug has to be injected in high concentrations due to its short half-life, the presence of its natural blood inhibitor (PAI-1) and the fast hepatic clearance (0.9 mg/kg in humans, 10 mg/kg in mouse models). Overall, there is a serious need for a dose-reduced targeted treatment to overcome these issues. We present in this article a new acoustic cavitation-based method for polymer MBs synthesis, three times faster than current hydrodynamic-cavitation method. The generated MBs are ultrasound responsive, stable and biocompatible. Their functionalization enabled the efficient and targeted treatment of stroke, without side effects. The stabilizing shell of the MBs is composed of Poly-Isobutyl Cyanoacrylate (PIBCA), copolymerized with fucoidan. Widely studied for its targeting properties, fucoidan exhibit a nanomolar affinity for activated endothelium and activated platelets (P-selectins). Secondly, the thrombolytic agent (rtPA) was loaded onto microbubbles (MBs) with a simple adsorption protocol. Hence, the present study validated the in vivo efficiency of rtPA-loaded Fuco MBs to be over 50 % more efficient than regular free rtPA injection for stroke resolution. In addition, the relative injected rtPA grafted onto targeting MBs was 1/10th of the standard effective dose (1 mg/kg in mouse). As a result, no hemorrhagic event, BBB leakage nor unexpected tissue distribution were observed.