Multimodal Neuroimaging in Alzheimer’s Disease: Early Diagnosis, Physiopathological Mechanisms, and Impact of Lifestyle.
Auteur : Chételat G
Année : 2018
Journal : J Alzheimers Dis 1875-8908
PubMed Id : 29504542
Over the last ten years, we have conducted research in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using multimodal neuroimaging techniques to improve diagnosis, further our understanding of the pathological mechanisms underlying the disease, and support the development of innovative non-pharmacological preventive strategies. Our works emphasized the interest of hippocampal subfield volumetry in early diagnosis and the need for further development in this field including optimization, standardization, and automatization of the techniques. Also, we conducted several studies in cognitively intact at-risk elderly (e.g., subjective cognitive decline patients and APOE4 carriers) to better identify biomarkers associated with increased risk of developing AD. Regarding the physiopathological mechanisms, specific multimodal neuroimaging techniques allowed us to highlight the relevance of diaschisis, the mismatch between neurodegeneration and local Aβ deposition and the regional variation in the mechanisms underlying structural or functional alterations. Further works integrating other biomarkers known to play a role in the physiopathology of AD (tau, TDP-43, inflammation, etc.) in a longitudinal design would be useful to get a comprehensive understanding of their relative role, sequence, and causal relationships. Our works also highlighted the relevance of functional connectivity in further understanding the specificity of cognitive deficits in AD and how connectivity differentially influences the propagation of the different AD biomarkers. Finally, we conducted several studies on the links between lifestyle factors and neuroimaging biomarkers to unravel mechanisms of reserve. Further efforts are needed to better understand which lifestyle factor, or combination of factors, impact on AD pathology, and when, to help translating our knowledge to training programs that might prevent or delay brain and cognitive changes leading to AD dementia.