Impacts of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) on neuronal survival.

Le 02 Nov 2021

Auteur : Chevilley A, Lesept F, Lenoir S, Ali C, Parcq J, Vivien D

Année : 2015

Journal : Front Cell Neurosci 1662-5102

PubMed Id : 26528141

Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) a serine protease is constituted of five functional domains through which it interacts with different substrates, binding proteins, and receptors. In the last years, great interest has been given to the clinical relevance of targeting tPA in different diseases of the central nervous system, in particular stroke. Among its reported functions in the central nervous system, tPA displays both neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects. How can the protease mediate such opposite functions remain unclear but several hypotheses have been proposed. These include an influence of the degree of maturity and/or the type of neurons, of the level of tPA, of its origin (endogenous or exogenous) or of its form (single chain tPA versus two chain tPA). In this review, we will provide a synthetic snapshot of our current knowledge regarding the natural history of tPA and discuss how it sustains its pleiotropic functions with focus on excitotoxic/ischemic neuronal death and neuronal survival.