HMGB-1 promotes fibrinolysis and reduces neurotoxicity mediated by tissue plasminogen activator.
Auteur : Roussel BD, Mysiorek C, Rouhiainen A, Jullienne A, Parcq J, Hommet Y, Culot M, Berezowski V, Cecchelli R, Rauvala H, Vivien D, Ali C
Année : 2011
Journal : J Cell Sci 1477-9137
PubMed Id : 21610098
Owing to its ability to generate the clot-dissolving protease plasmin, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only approved drug for the acute treatment of ischemic stroke. However, tPA also promotes hemorrhagic transformation and excitotoxic events. High mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB-1) is a non-histone transcription factor and a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which has also been shown to bind to both tPA and plasminogen. We thus investigated the cellular and molecular effects through which HMGB-1 could influence the vascular and parenchymal effects of tPA during ischemia. We demonstrate that HMGB-1 not only increases clot lysis by tPA, but also reduces the passage of vascular tPA across the blood-brain barrier, as well as tPA-driven leakage of the blood-brain barrier. In addition, HMGB-1 prevents the pro-neurotoxic effect of tPA, by blocking its interaction with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the attendant potentiation of NMDA-induced neuronal Ca²Ã¢ÂÂº influx. In conclusion, we show in vitro that HMGB-1 can promote the beneficial effects of tPA while counteracting its deleterious properties. We suggest that derivatives of HMGB-1, devoid of pro-inflammatory properties, could be used as adjunctive therapies to improve the overall benefit of tPA-mediated thrombolysis following stroke.