Glutamate controls vessel-associated migration of GABA interneurons from the pial migratory route via NMDA receptors and endothelial protease activation.

Le 27 Oct 2021

Auteur : Léger C, Dupré N, Aligny C, Bénard M, Lebon A, Henry V, Hauchecorne M, Galas L, Frebourg T, Leroux P, Vivien D, Lecointre M, Marret S, Gonzalez BJ

Année : 2020

Journal : Cell Mol Life Sci 1420-9071

PubMed Id : 31392351

During cortex development, fine interactions between pyramidal cells and migrating GABA neurons are required to orchestrate correct positioning of interneurons, but cellular and molecular mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Functional and age-specific expression of NMDA receptors by neonate endothelial cells suggests a vascular contribution to the trophic role of glutamate during cortical development. Associating functional and loss-of-function approaches, we found that glutamate stimulates activity of the endothelial proteases MMP-9 and t-PA along the pial migratory route (PMR) and radial cortical microvessels. Activation of MMP-9 was NMDAR-dependent and abrogated in t-PA-/- mice. Time-lapse recordings revealed that glutamate stimulated migration of GABA interneurons along vessels through an NMDAR-dependent mechanism. In Gad67-GFP mice, t-PA invalidation and in vivo administration of an MMP inhibitor impaired positioning of GABA interneurons in superficial cortical layers, whereas Grin1 endothelial invalidation resulted in a strong reduction of the thickness of the pial migratory route, a marked decrease of the glutamate-induced MMP-9-like activity along the PMR and a depopulation of interneurons in superficial cortical layers. This study supports that glutamate controls the vessel-associated migration of GABA interneurons by regulating the activity of endothelial proteases. This effect requires endothelial NMDAR and is t-PA-dependent. These neurodevelopmental data reinforce the debate regarding safety of molecules with NMDA-antagonist properties administered to preterm and term neonates.