Differential effects of transforming growth factor-beta and epidermal growth factor on the cell cycle of cultured rabbit articular chondrocytes.
Auteur : Vivien D, Galéra P, Lebrun E, Loyau G, Pujol JP
Année : 1990
Journal : J Cell Physiol 0021-9541
PubMed Id : 2358472
We examined the effect of transforming growth factor (TGF-beta) on the proliferative rate and cell cycle of cultured rabbit articular chondrocytes using cell counting, cytofluorometry, and [3H]-thymidine incorporation. In the presence of 2% or 10% FCS (fetal calf serum), TGF-beta at 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 ng/ml had an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation after 24 h exposure with a dose dependence only for 2% FCS. Flow cytometric analysis of cell DNA content at that time showed that a high proportion of cells were arrested in late S-phase (SQ or G2Q) in either 2% or 10% FCS-containing medium. In both cases, a disappearance of the cell blockage occurred between 24 and 48 h after TGF-beta addition. However, whereas a stimulation of cell proliferation rate was observed at that time in cultures containing 10% FCS, a dose-dependence inhibition of cell growth was detected, in contrast, for 2% FCS-treated cells. Presence of TGF-beta during the last 24 h was not necessary to release the arrested cells. Furthermore, platelet-poor plasma at 10% produced the same effects as FCS, suggesting that platelet-derived factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), could not be responsible for the release of blocked cells in this case. We compared the effect of TGF-beta to that of epidermal growth factor (EGF), used at an optimal concentration (10 ng/ml). In both slowly growing (2% FCS) and proliferating chondrocytes (10% FCS), EGF caused a significant increase of cell proliferation as early as 24 h. No arrest in late S-phase but an augmentation of the percentage of cells in S- and G2M-phases were observed. When combined, TGF-beta and EGF did not induce synergistic effect on the chondrocyte proliferation, as estimated by cell counting. [3H]-thymidine labeling showed that the factors induced identical maxima of incorporation but the peak occurred earlier for TGF-beta than for EGF (approximately 6 h versus 12 h, respectively). Although both factors induce similar cell-number increases at 48 h in 10% FCS-containing medium, these proliferative effects were due to different actions on the cell cycle. The present study indicates that TGF-beta induces first a recruitment of chondrocytes in noncycling SQ- or G2Q-blocked cells. The, the release of these cells may produce either apparent stimulation of cell proliferation if sufficient levels of an unknown serum factor are present (10% FCS) or an inhibition of growth rate when only reduced amounts of this factor are available (2% FCS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)