Astrocytes regulate the balance between plasminogen activation and plasmin clearance via cell-surface actin.
Auteur : Briens A, Bardou I, Lebas H, Miles LA, Parmer RJ, Vivien D, Docagne F
Année : 2017
Journal : Cell Discov 2056-5968
PubMed Id : 28417010
Plasminogen activation is involved in many processes within the central nervous system, including synaptic plasticity, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms that regulate plasminogen activation in the brain still remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that astrocytes participate in this regulation by two mechanisms. First, the astrocyte plasma membrane serves as a surface for plasminogen activation by tissue-type plasminogen activator. This activation triggers downstream plasmin-dependent processes with important impacts in brain health and disease, such as fibrinolysis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor conversion. Second, astrocytes take up plasminogen and plasmin in a regulated manner through a novel mechanism involving endocytosis mediated by cell-surface actin and triggered by extracellular plasmin activity at the surface of astrocytes. Following endocytosis, plasminogen and plasmin are targeted to lysosomes for degradation. Thus, cell-surface actin acts as a sensor of plasmin activity to induce a negative feedback through plasmin endocytosis. This study provides evidence that astrocytes control the balance between plasmin formation and plasmin elimination in the brain parenchyma.